Risk factor control across the spectrum of cardiovascular risk: Findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Am J Prev Cardiol. 2021 Jan 13:5:100147. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpc.2021.100147. eCollection 2021 Mar.


Background: Presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (RFs) should prompt patients and their providers to work aggressively towards controlling those that are modifiable. The extent to which a greater CVD RF burden is related to CVD RF control in a contemporary and diverse Hispanic/Latino population is not well-understood.

Methods: Using multicenter community-based data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, we assessed the self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and prevalent CVD (ischemic heart disease or stroke). We used contemporaneous guidelines to define RF control. Multivariable logistic regression for complex survey sampling was used to examine whether having more CVD RFs was associated with CVD RF control (adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic background group, education, and health insurance).

Results: Our sample included 8521 participants with at least one CVD RF or prevalent CVD. The mean age in HCHS/SOL target population was 49 (SE 0.3) years and 56% were women. Frequency of one, two, or three self-reported CVD RFs was 57%, 26%, 8%, respectively, and overall 9% of participants had prevalent CVD. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, compared to those reporting one CVD RF, individuals with three CVD RFs were the least likely to have blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose optimally controlled (odds ratio [OR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.80). However, those with prevalent CVD were more likely to have all three risk factors controlled, (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.01-2.01).

Conclusion: Hispanic/Latino adults with three major CVD RFs represent a group with poor overall CVD RF control. Secondary CVD prevention fares better. The potential contributors to inadequate CVD RF control in this highly vulnerable group warrants further investigation.

Keywords: Cardiovascular prevention; Diabetes; Health disparities; Hispanics; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypertension.