A retrospective study of 232 bladder tumours with minimum follow-up 5 years is presented. The carcinoma was superficial in 66%, muscle-invasive in 31% and could not be staged in 3%. Primary treatment was mainly transurethral resection for superficial tumour, but was cystectomy or radiotherapy in 22 of 29 T1 G3. Of the superficial tumours, 71% recurred. Progression to higher T stage occurred in 15% of Ta and 29% of T1 tumours, and half of these patients died of bladder cancer. The corrected 5-year survival rates in grades 1, 2A, 2B and 3-4 were 96, 84, 64 and 43%, and in stages Ta, T1, T2 and T3 they were 94, 69, 40 and 31%. All patients with T4 tumour died within 4 years. Among the 45 patients with 40 Gy irradiation + cystectomy, the corrected 5-year survival rate was 83% in superficial and 64% in muscle-invasive tumours, and among the 38 with radical radiotherapy the rates in T1-3 were 46, 36 and 13%. Transurethral resection was successful in most Ta cases. Most T1 tumours were, like T2-4, of higher grade than Ta. Prognosis was worse in T1 than in Ta. After progression to muscle-invasive disease, even during close follow-up the outlook was poor, as poor as for patients with primary muscle-invasive disease.