Elongation, splicing and polyadenylation are fundamental steps of transcription, and studying their coordination requires simultaneous monitoring of these dynamic processes on one transcript. We recently developed a full-length nascent RNA sequencing method in the model plant Arabidopsis that simultaneously detects RNA polymerase II position, splicing status, polyadenylation site and poly(A) tail length at genome-wide scale. This method allows calculation of the kinetics of cotranscriptional splicing and detects polyadenylated transcripts with unspliced introns retained at specific positions posttranscriptionally. Here we describe a detailed protocol for this method called FLEP-seq (full-length elongating and polyadenylated RNA sequencing) that is applicable to plants. Library production requires as little as one nanogram of nascent RNA (after rRNA/tRNA removal), and either Nanopore or PacBio platforms can be used for sequencing. We also provide a complete bioinformatic pipeline from raw data processing to downstream analysis. The minimum time required for FLEP-seq, including RNA extraction and library preparation, is 36 h. The subsequent long-read sequencing and initial data analysis ranges between 31 and 40 h, depending on the sequencing platform.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.