Various pathologies result from disruptions to or stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, such as Parkinson's disease and most neurodegenerative illnesses, diabetes, pulmonary fibrosis, viral infections, and cancers. A critical process in maintaining ER homeostasis is the selection of misfolded proteins by the ER quality-control system for destruction via ER-associated degradation (ERAD). One key protein proposed to act during the first steps of misfolded glycoprotein degradation is the ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein 2 (EDEM2). Therefore, characterization of the EDEM2-associated proteome is of great interest. We took advantage of using melanoma cells overexpressing EDEM2 as a cancer model system, to start documenting at the deglycoproteome level (N-glycosites identification) the emerging link between ER homeostasis and cancer progression. The dataset created for identifying the EDEM2 glyco clients carrying high mannose/hybrid N-glycans provides a comprehensive N-glycosite analysis mapping over 1000 N-glycosites on more than 600 melanoma glycoproteins. To identify EDEM2-associated proteins, we used affinity proteomics and proteome-wide analysis of sucrose density fractionation in an integrative workflow. Using intensity and spectral count-based quantification, we identify seven new EDEM2 partners, all of which are involved in ER quality-control system and ERAD. Moreover, we defined novel endogenous candidates for EDEM2-dependent ERAD by combining deglycoproteomics, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based proteomics, and biochemical methods. These included tumor antigens and several ER-transiting endogenous melanoma proteins, including integrin alpha-1 and protocadherin 2, the expression of which was negatively correlated with that of EDEM2. Tumor antigens are key in the antigen presentation process, whereas integrin alpha-1 and protocadherin 2 are involved in melanoma metastasis and invasion. EDEM2 could therefore have a regulatory role in melanoma through the modulation of degradation and trafficking in these glycoproteins. The data presented herein suggest that EDEM2 is involved in ER homeostasis to a greater extent than previously suggested.
Keywords: EDEM2; ER quality control; ERAD; MS; glycoproteomics; melanoma; proteomics; pulsed-SILAC.
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