Systemic delivery of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) class II-based nanomedicines can re-program cognate autoantigen-experienced CD4+ T cells into disease-suppressing T-regulatory type 1 (TR1)-like cells. In turn, these TR1-like cells trigger the formation of complex regulatory cell networks that can effectively suppress organ-specific autoimmunity without impairing normal immunity. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the transcriptional, phenotypic and functional make up of TR1-like cells as described in the literature. The true identity and direct precursors of these cells remain unclear, in particular whether TR1-like cells comprise a single terminally-differentiated lymphocyte population with distinct transcriptional and epigenetic features, or a collection of phenotypically different subsets sharing key regulatory properties. We propose that detailed transcriptional and epigenetic characterization of homogeneous pools of TR1-like cells will unravel this conundrum.
Keywords: T-cell reprogramming; T-regulatory type 1 (TR1) cells; autoimmune disease; interleukin 10 (IL10); peptide-MHC class II-coated nanoparticles; therapy.
Copyright © 2021 Solé and Santamaria.