Protective Effect of Mitochondrial ND2 C5178A Gene Mutation on Cell and Mitochondrial Functions

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 Jul 20:2021:4728714. doi: 10.1155/2021/4728714. eCollection 2021.


Background: Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (MT-ND2) m. 5178C>A gene mutation has protective effects against various diseases, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In previous study, we found a heteroplasmy level of MT-ND2 m. 5178C>A mutation in normotensive controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from essential hypertension individuals carrying the mutation and healthy controls without gene mutation to establish immortalized lymphocyte lines. To investigate the effect of the MT-ND2 m. 5178C>A gene mutation, comparative analyses of the two group cell lines were performed, including measurements of cell proliferation, viability, ATP synthesis, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and oxidative phosphorylation.

Results: The cell proliferation rate and viability of the MT-ND2 m. 5178C>A mutant lymphocyte line were higher than those of the control group. Mitochondrial functions of the MT-ND2 m. 5178C>A mutant lymphocyte were increased, including increased ATP synthesis, decreased ROS production, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and Bcl-2 gene transcription and protein translation, decreased Caspase 3/7 activity, and decreased early apoptosis and late apoptosis. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the mutant lymphocyte line was higher than that of the control group, including basal OCR, ATP-linked OCR, maximal OCR, proton leak OCR, and reserve OCR, and there was no significant difference in nonmitochondrial OCR. The activity of Mitochondrial Complex I of the mutant group was increased than that of the control group.

Conclusions: The MT-ND2 m. 5178C>A mutation is a protective mutation that may be related to improvement of mitochondrial functions and decrease in apoptosis.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / biosynthesis
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Essential Hypertension / genetics
  • Essential Hypertension / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitochondria / enzymology*
  • Mitochondria / genetics*
  • Mitochondria / pathology
  • Mutation*
  • NADH Dehydrogenase / genetics*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • NADH Dehydrogenase
  • NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, human