Socioeconomic patterns and COVID-19 outcomes before, during and after the lockdown in Italy (2020)

Health Place. 2021 Sep:71:102642. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2021.102642. Epub 2021 Jul 29.


The objective was to investigate the association between deprivation and COVID-19 outcomes in Italy during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown periods using a retrospective cohort study with 38,534,169 citizens and 222,875 COVID-19 cases. Multilevel negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, population-density and region of residence were conducted to evaluate the association between area-level deprivation and COVID-19 incidence, case-hospitalisation rate and case-fatality. During lockdown and post-lockdown, but not during pre-lockdown, higher incidence of cases was observed in the most deprived municipalities compared with the least deprived ones. No differences in case-hospitalisation and case-fatality according to deprivation were observed in any period under study.

Keywords: COVID-19; Deprivation; HEALTH Inequalities; SOCIAL Epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Communicable Disease Control
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Socioeconomic Factors