The genomic epidemiology of multi-drug resistant invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella in selected sub-Saharan African countries

BMJ Glob Health. 2021 Aug;6(8):e005659. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005659.

Abstract

Background: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) is one of the leading causes of bacteraemia in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a better understanding of the genetic characteristics and transmission patterns associated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) iNTS serovars across the continent.

Methods: A total of 166 iNTS isolates collected from a multi-centre surveillance in 10 African countries (2010-2014) and a fever study in Ghana (2007-2009) were genome sequenced to investigate the geographical distribution, antimicrobial genetic determinants and population structure of iNTS serotypes-genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in the context of the existing genomic frameworks for various iNTS serovars. Population-based incidence of MDR-iNTS disease was estimated in each study site.

Results: Salmonella Typhimurium sequence-type (ST) 313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were predominant, and both exhibited high frequencies of MDR; Salmonella Dublin ST10 was identified in West Africa only. Mutations in the gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance) were identified in S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in Ghana; an ST313 isolate carrying bla CTX-M-15 was found in Kenya. International transmission of MDR ST313 (lineage II) and MDR ST11 (West African clade) was observed between Ghana and neighbouring West African countries. The incidence of MDR-iNTS disease exceeded 100/100 000 person-years-of-observation in children aged <5 years in several West African countries.

Conclusions: We identified the circulation of multiple MDR iNTS serovar STs in the sampled sub-Saharan African countries. Investment in the development and deployment of iNTS vaccines coupled with intensified antimicrobial resistance surveillance are essential to limit the impact of these pathogens in Africa.

Keywords: cross-sectional survey; epidemiology; medical microbiology; typhoid and paratyphoid fevers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Kenya
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  • Phylogeny
  • Salmonella typhimurium* / genetics

Substances

  • Pharmaceutical Preparations