Differences in Muscle Activity and Kinetics Between the Goblet Squat and Landmine Squat in Men and Women

J Strength Cond Res. 2021 Oct 1;35(10):2661-2668. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004094.


Collins, KS, Klawitter, LA, Waldera, RW, Mahoney, SJ, and Christensen, BK. Differences in muscle activity and kinetics between the goblet squat and landmine squat in men and women. J Strength Cond Res 35(10): 2661-2668, 2021-Squat exercise variations are widely used and extensively researched. However, little information exists on the goblet squat (GBS) and landmine squat (LMS) and differences between men and women. This study investigated the differences in muscle activity and kinetics between the GBS and the LMS in 16 men and 16 women. Five repetitions of each squat type were performed loaded at 30% of their body mass. Vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces for the eccentric and concentric phases and peak vertical force were recorded with a force plate. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded for the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps femoris (BF). Normalized mean EMG values and ground reaction forces were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Significant main effects for squat condition and sex were found. The LMS reduced activity in the quadriceps (VM and VL) muscles and vertical forces, while increasing posterior horizontal forces. In the LMS, men showed decreased ST activity, whereas women had decreased BF activity. Women exhibited greater quadriceps activity in both the GBS and LMS and greater ST in the LMS. Women also produced greater eccentric vertical force in both the GBS and LMS and less posterior horizontal forces in the LMS. The LMS may be useful to balance hamstring to quadriceps activity, increase horizontal loading, and reduce vertical loading. Conversely, the GBS can better target quadriceps activity and increase vertical loading. Sex differences should be considered for training programs that include the GBS and LMS.

MeSH terms

  • Electromyography
  • Female
  • Hamstring Muscles*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal*
  • Quadriceps Muscle