Improvement of binocular summation in intermittent exotropia following successful postoperative alignment

Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15584. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-95049-9.


To investigate the improvement of binocular summation (BiS) at high contrast (100%) and different low contrasts (10, 5 and 2.5%) in patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) after successfully postoperative alignment. A total of 76 patients (aged 9-40 years) with IXT and poor control at distance before surgery were enrolled in this study. The postoperative deviations ranged between 4 PD esophoria to 10 PD exotropia in the primary position (at near and at distance) in all the enrolled patients. The follow-up visits were 2-3 months after the surgery. We analyzed preoperative and postoperative BiS and the proportions of patients with different BiS for the high contrast and the low contrasts. Binocular summation (BiS) was classified into three situations: binocular summation, equal and inbibition. The results of the distant random dots stereograph (RDS) were grouped into A, unable to recognize; B, moderate, 200″ ≤ RDS ≤ 400″ and C, good, RDS < 200″. Following the successful postoperative alignment, the proportion of patients with BiS were increased from 9.2 to 40.8%, 17.1 to 53.9%, 21.1 to 76.1% and 21.1 to 72.4% at 100%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% contrasts respectively. At 2.5% contrast, (1) more patients presented binocular summation in the groups B and C; (2) postoperative improvements of binocular visual acuity (BVA) in groups B (1.5 ± 1.03 lines) and C (1.57 ± 1.26 lines) were significantly different from the BVA in the group A (0.74 ± 1.00 line); and (3) in the group with central fusion, more patients presented BiS after surgery and the postoperative BVA improved by 1.43 ± 1.16 lines. Binocular summation for high contrast and different low contrasts can be improved in patients with IXT after successful surgical treatment. The improvement of BiS was associated with obtaining central fusion, recovering distant stereopsis and good alignment after the surgeries. The most significant improvement was shown at 2.5% contrast and was associated with good stereopsis and central fusion. The improvement of BiS, particularly at low contrast, has benefits for the daily activities in the real environment. BiS improvement could be used as a supplementary assessment of binocular function in patients with IXT before and after treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Exotropia / physiopathology*
  • Exotropia / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postoperative Care*
  • Strabismus / surgery
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology*
  • Young Adult