Cutaneous wound healing has always been an intractable medical problem for both clinicians and researchers, with an urgent need for more efficacious methods to achieve optimal outcomes morphologically and functionally. Stem cells, the body's rapid response 'road repair crew,' being on standby to combat tissue injuries, are an essential part of regenerative medicine. Currently, the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), a kind of mesenchymal stem cells with multipotent differentiation and self-renewal capacity, is surging in the field of cutaneous wound healing. ADSCs may exert influences either by releasing paracrine signalling factors or differentiating into mature adipose cells to provide the 'building blocks' for engineered tissue. As an important paracrine substance released from ADSCs, exosomes are a kind of extracellular vesicles and carrying various bioactive molecules mediating adjacent or distant intercellular communication. Previous studies have indicated that ADSCs derived exosomes (ADSCs-Exos) promoted skin wound healing by affecting all stages of wound healing, including regulating inflammatory response, promoting proliferation and migration of fibroblasts or keratinocytes, facilitating angiogenesis, and regulating remodeling of extracellular matrix, which have provided new opportunities for understanding how ADSCs-Exos mediate intercellular communication in pathological processes of the skin and therapeutic strategies for cutaneous wound repair. In this review, we focus on elucidating the role of ADSCs-Exos at various stages of cutaneous wound healing, detailing the latest developments, and presenting some challenges necessary to be addressed in this field, with the expectation of providing a new perspective on how to best utilize this powerful cell-free therapy in the future.
Keywords: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; Exosomes; Wound healing.
Copyright © 2021 The Korean Dermatological Association and The Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology.