Tumor exosomes that inherit specific molecules from their parent cells are emerging as ideal biomarkers in cancer diagnostics. Most currently available exosome isolation and detection methods are time-consuming and non-specific; thus, rapid and specific exosome detection methods are needed both clinically and in research. Here, a dual-functional platform is reported composed of reversible conjunction and "off-on" signal responses. Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 particles with high affinity were applied to capture exosomes, and model exosomes could be isolated from solution within 20 min with a capture efficiency of 91.5%. An "on-off" fluorescence response PSMA aptasensor was constructed with improved selectivity to detect tumor exosomes by recording the fluorescence intensity with λex/em = 557/580 nm. The standard curve for detecting tumor exosomes with the aptasensor was calculated as y = 371.7x + 66.17, ranging from 0.05 to 1 × 104 particles/μL, with R2 = 0.9737, and a detection limit of 5 × 102 particles/μL in solution. This method was successfully applied to clinical samples, and the results showed better performance in distinguishing prostate cancer patients and healthy samples than the traditional nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) method. This rapid and accurate detection method for prostate cancer may aid in rapid clinical diagnosis. Integrating quickly TiO2-based isolation with sensitive and specific "on-off" detection of PCa exosomes.
Keywords: Fluorescence detection; Tumor exosomes; PSMA aptasensor; Prostate cancer; Traumatogenic biopsies.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.