Time-dependent degree of conversion, Martens parameters, and flexural strength of different dual-polymerizing resin composite luting materials

Clin Oral Investig. 2022 Jan;26(1):1067-1076. doi: 10.1007/s00784-021-04091-4. Epub 2021 Aug 3.


Objective: To investigate the degree of conversion (DC), Martens hardness (HM), elastic indentation modulus (EIT), and biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of six dual-polymerizing resin composite luting materials initially and after 2 and 7 days of aging.

Materials and methods: Specimens fabricated from Bifix QM (BIF; VOCO), Calibra Ceram (CAL; Dentsply Sirona), DuoCem (DUO; Coltène/Whaledent), G-CEM LinkForce (GCE; GC Europe), PANAVIA V5 (PAN; Kuraray Europe), and Variolink Esthetic DC (VAR; Ivoclar Vivadent) (n = 12 per material) were light-polymerized through 1 mm thick discs (Celtra Duo, Dentsply Sirona). DC, HM, and EIT were recorded directly after fabrication, and after 2 and 7 days of aging. As a final test, BFS was measured. Univariate ANOVAs, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests, and Weibull modulus were computed (p < 0.05).

Results: While CAL presented low DC, HM, EIT, and BFS values, DUO and BIF showed high results. Highest Weibull moduli were observed for VAR and DUO. DC and Martens parameters increased between the initial measurement and 2 days of aging, while aging for 7 days provided no further improvement.

Conclusions: The choice of dual-polymerizing resin composite luting material plays an important role regarding chemical and mechanical properties, especially with patients sensitive to toxicological issues. DUO may be recommended for bonding fixed dental prostheses, as it demonstrated significantly highest and reliable results regarding DC, HM, and BFS. As DC and HM showed an increase in the first 48 h, it may be assumed that the polymerization reaction is not completed directly after initial polymerization, which is of practical importance to dentists and patients.

Clinical relevance: The chemical and mechanical properties of dual-polymerizing resin composite luting materials influence the overall stability and long-term performance of the restoration.

Keywords: Biaxial flexural strength; Degree of conversion; Dual-polymerizing resin composite luting materials; Elastic indentation modulus; Martens hardness; Raman spectroscopy.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Composite Resins
  • Esthetics, Dental
  • Flexural Strength*
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Mustelidae*
  • Resin Cements
  • Surface Properties


  • Composite Resins
  • Resin Cements