Small extracellular vesicles from menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) as a novel therapeutic impetus in regenerative medicine

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Aug 3;12(1):433. doi: 10.1186/s13287-021-02511-6.


Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) have great potential in regenerative medicine. MenSC has received increasing attention owing to its impressive therapeutic effects in both preclinical and clinical trials. However, the study of MenSC-derived small extracellular vesicles (EVs) is still in its initial stages, in contrast to some common MSC sources (e.g., bone marrow, umbilical cord, and adipose tissue). We describe the basic characteristics and biological functions of MenSC-derived small EVs. We also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of small EVs in fulminant hepatic failure, myocardial infarction, pulmonary fibrosis, prostate cancer, cutaneous wound, type-1 diabetes mellitus, aged fertility, and potential diseases. Subsequently, novel hotspots with respect to MenSC EV-based therapy are proposed to overcome current challenges. While complexities regarding the therapeutic potential of MenSC EVs continue to be unraveled, advances are rapidly emerging in both basic science and clinical medicine. MenSC EV-based treatment has great potential for treating a series of diseases as a novel therapeutic strategy in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: Cell-free therapy; Exosomes; Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MenSC); Regenerative medicine; Small extracellular vesicle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Extracellular Vesicles*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Menstruation
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells*
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • Umbilical Cord