Primary leiomyoma of the ureter: a case report

J Med Case Rep. 2021 Aug 3;15(1):423. doi: 10.1186/s13256-021-02960-w.


Background: Only 14 cases of leiomyoma with ureteral origin have been reported previously. Such primary leiomyomas often present as hydronephrosis, making the diagnosis difficult. Radical nephroureterectomy is often performed because of the possible diagnosis of a malignant tumor. We report the 15th case of primary leiomyoma with a ureteral origin.

Case presentation: A 51-year-old Japanese man presented with a chief complaint of asymptomatic gross hematuria with a history of hypertension. Enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor at the upper part of the right ureter that appeared to be the cause of hydronephrosis and contracted kidney; no retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and distal metastasis were observed. A well-defined 20-mm (diameter) defect was identified at the upper of the right ureter on retrograde pyelogram with no bladder cancer on cystoscopy. Urine cytology and right divided renal urine cytology findings were negative. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was performed, and the extracted tumor measured 20 × 13 mm. Histopathological examination revealed primary leiomyoma with no recurrence 16 months after the operation.

Conclusions: Preoperative examination with the latest available ureteroscopic technology can help preserve renal function in the case of benign tumors by enabling preoperative ureteroscopic biopsy or intraoperative rapid resection. Moreover, nephroureterectomy is recommended in the case of preoperative suspicion of ureteral malignant tumors.

Keywords: Primary leiomyoma of the ureter; Ureteral leiomyoma; Ureteral neoplasm.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Nephroureterectomy
  • Ureter* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ureter* / surgery
  • Ureteral Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ureteral Neoplasms* / surgery