A polymorphism in the ADRB3 gene (Trp64Arg) has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships among this polymorphism, hypertension, and insulin resistance values (HOMA-IR) in 719 Japanese subjects aged 40 years and older. The genotype frequencies of Trp64Trp (homozygous, wild), Trp64Arg (heterozygous, variant), and Arg64Arg (homozygous, variant) were 466 (65%), 233 (32%), and 20 (3%), respectively. Insulin resistance was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a Japanese population. This relationship was dependent on the presence or absence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism (odds ratio, 2.054; confidence interval, 1.191 to 3.541; P value, 0.010). Therefore, the Trp64Arg polymorphism of ADRB3 was associated with hypertension and insulin resistance in a healthy Japanese population. This relationship, which was dependent on the polymorphism, may predict the development of hypertension and diabetes.