Objectives: Deep lesions located in lateral and third ventricles can be accessed thorough interhemispheric transcallosal or transcortical trans-ventricular approaches. Traditional brain retractors are made by 'non-cerebral engineered' spatulas, which do not equally distribute pressure on surrounding structures damaging brain. In this paper, we present a series of 20 intraventricular tumours resected through a MRI/US-navigated microscopic transcortical endoportal approach.
Patients and methods: Between January 2014 and December 2017, 20 patients underwent US-MRI neuronavigated (Esaote®, Genova, Italy) transcortical endoportal (Vycor® Viewsite Brain Access System TC Model, Vycor® Medical Inc., Boca Raton, FL) surgery for intraventricular deep-seated lesions with the intent to reach maximal safe resection.
Results: Gross total removal was achieved in 14 patients (70%). The only prognostic factor that resulted in statistical significance related to surgical radicality from multivariate analysis was white matter infiltration (p = 0.043), regardless of other tumour (dimensions, origin and location inside ventricular system, histopathology) and patient (age, gender, clinical presentation) characteristics. The mean duration of surgery was 225.9 min (± 59). Neither critical events, nor major bleedings, nor intraoperative deaths occurred during surgery. One case of postoperative CSF infection (5%) was registered. Six patients (30%) required permanent CSF drainage system (Ommaya reservoir, VP shunt) in the postoperative period. The mean Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score at last follow-up was 105 (range: 65-124).
Conclusions: Transcortical transventricular endoportal surgery seems to be a valuable alternative to transcallosal surgery, although further prospective multicentre studies with larger number of patients, evaluation of pre- and post-operative neuropsychological outcomes and achievement of postoperative DTI and f-MRI are needed to confirm our results.
Keywords: Endoportal neurosurgery; endoventricular neurosurgery; endoventricular tumours; minimally invasive neurosurgery; retractorless surgery.