Effects of different doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gut microbiota and immunity

Food Nutr Res. 2021 Jul 8;65. doi: 10.29219/fnr.v65.6263. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play beneficial roles in metabolism and health. Little is known about the effects of different doses of omega-3 PUFAs on gut microbiota.

Objective: In this study, we focus on the effects of different doses of omega-3 PUFAs on gut microbiota and immunity.

Design: BALB/c mice was first treated with ceftriaxone sodium for 7 days, and then they received saline or different doses of omega-3 PUFAs (30, 60 and 90 mg omega-3 PUFAs) via daily gavage for 21 days. Alterations of cecum microbiota; the tight junction proteins, zonula occludens 3 (ZO3) and occludin, in the ileal wall; serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS); Interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) ; mucus SIgA levels were measured.

Results: Compared with the ceftriaxone sodium administration group, significant increases in bacterial richness and diversity were observed in the 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups, while only a slight increase was observed in the 30-mg omega-3 PUFA group. A higher percentage of several genera, including Lactobacillus, Helicobacter, and Ruminococcus, and a lower percentage of Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Prevotella were observed in the 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups when compared with those in the 30-mg group. The expression of ZO3 and occludin proteins increased in 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups compared with the natural recovery group. The mucus SIgA and serum IL-10 levels were increased, and serum levels of LPS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were decreased in the 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA groups when compared with those in the ceftriaxone sodium-treated group.

Conclusion: Different doses of omega-3 PUFAs have different therapeutic effects on the intestinal microbiota. The 60- and 90-mg omega-3 PUFA supplementation had better recovery effects on the gut microbiota and immunity than those of the 30 mg omega-3 PUFAs supplementation.

Keywords: ceftriaxone sodium; dose; immunity; microbiota; omega-3 PUFAs.