Craniocervical abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta type V

Osteoporos Int. 2022 Jan;33(1):177-183. doi: 10.1007/s00198-021-06088-x. Epub 2021 Aug 5.


Craniocervical abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) such as basilar invagination or cervical kyphosis can cause severe neurological morbidity. These abnormalities may be more frequent in OI type V compared with other OI subtypes of similar disease severity, underlining the importance of screening in this group.

Introduction: Craniocervical abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) can cause severe neurological morbidity. Although radiological cranial base abnormalities in OI have been well described in the literature, there are limited data on these abnormalities in OI type V and their association with clinical sequelae.

Methods: A retrospective case series on patients with craniocervical abnormalities in OI type V at our institution.

Results: Craniocervical abnormalities were present in 7 of 37 patients with OI type V (19%). For 5 patients (age at last follow-up: 5 to 26 years; 2 females), sufficient information was available for inclusion in the case series. All had genetically confirmed OI type V. Age range at diagnosis of the craniocervical abnormality was 1 day to 18 years. Basilar invagination was present in 3 patients; 2 had cervical kyphosis. Dysplasia of upper cervical vertebrae or base of skull was seen in 3 patients. The severity of the craniocervical abnormality did not clearly correlate with the severity of the OI phenotype. Three patients required surgical intervention (ages 7, 11, and 26 years) due to compression of the spinal cord or brainstem. Craniocervical abnormalities were detected incidentally or on screening in 3 patients, and only 2 had significant positive findings on neurological examination.

Conclusion: A variety of craniocervical abnormalities are seen in OI type V including dysplasia of the cervical vertebrae. These cases highlight the importance of screening patients with OI type V with lateral skull and cervical spine x-rays throughout childhood and after skeletal maturity.

Keywords: Basilar invagination; Cervical spine; Kyphosis; Osteogenesis imperfect.

MeSH terms

  • Cervical Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Kyphosis*
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta* / complications
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta* / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta* / genetics
  • Platybasia*
  • Retrospective Studies