In the past few years research in the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has led to remarkable advances in our understanding of the disease. Cytogenetic and molecular aberrations are the most important factors in determining response to chemotherapy as well as long-term outcome, but beyond prognostication are potential therapeutic targets. Our increased understanding of the pathogenesis of AML facilitated by next-generation sequencing has spurred the development of new compounds in the treatment of AML, particularly the creation of small molecules that target the disease on a molecular level. Many of the hopeful predictions outlined in our AML review of 2018 are now therapeutic realities: gemtuzumab ozogamicin, venetoclax, FLT3 inhibitors (midostaurin, gilteritinib), IDH inhibitors (ivosidenib, enasidenib), CPX-351, glasdegib, oral decitabine, and oral azacitidine. Others may soon be (quizartinib, APR246 magrolimab, menin inhibitors). The wealth of positive data allows reconsideration of what might soon be new standards of care in younger and older patients with AML. In this review we give an overview of recently approved therapies in AML and address present and future research directions.
Keywords: Keywords: acute myeloid leukaemia; authority-approved agents; molecular tailored therapy; monoclonal antibody; tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
© 2021 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by British Society for Haematology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.