We investigated the prevalence of insomnia in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-treated patients and examined the association between post-ECMO insomnia disorder and long-term mortality. In the present population-based cohort study, we used data from the National Health Insurance Claims database in South Korea. All adult patients who underwent ECMO between 2006 and 2014 were included, and ECMO-treated patients were defined as those who survived >365 days after ECMO. Insomnia disorder was identified using the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes G47.0 and F51.0. Overall, 3,055 ECMO-treated patients were included in the final analysis: 431 (14.1%) had pre-ECMO insomnia disorder, while 148 (4.8%) were newly diagnosed with insomnia disorder up to 1 year after ECMO. In multivariable Cox regression model, patients with post-ECMO insomnia disorder had higher 5-year all-cause mortality (ACM) than controls (hazard ratio [HR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.42; p = 0.003); however, those with pre-ECMO insomnia disorder did not (p = 0.655). In sensitivity analysis, post-ECMO insomnia disorder with underlying psychiatric illness was associated with a 2.39-fold higher 5-year ACM in ECMO-treated patients (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.52-3.75; p < 0.001). In conclusion, at 1-year after ECMO, 4.8% of ECMO-treated patients were newly diagnosed with insomnia disorder, and post-ECMO insomnia disorder was associated with higher 5-year ACM, especially in those with underlying psychiatric illness. Our present results suggest that the development of insomnia disorder might be related to poorer long-term survival in ECMO-treated patients, especially in case of underlying psychiatric illness.
Keywords: critical care; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; intensive care unit; sleep initiation and maintenance disorders.
© 2021 European Sleep Research Society.