Pharmacological investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of leaves and branches extracts from Plinia cauliflora (Jaboticaba)

J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Nov 15:280:114463. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114463. Epub 2021 Aug 2.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Among all native Brazilian plant species, Plinia cauliflora (DC.) Kausel (Jaboticaba), is well known for producing "superfruits", due to their high phenolic content and antioxidant property. The fruit has astringent characteristics, and it is popularly known for the treatment of diarrhea, rash, and intestinal inflammation. However, there are only a few studies on the use of leaves and branches of this species in the literature, mainly to treat oxidative stress and inflammation.

Aim of the study: The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of leaves and branches extracts from P. cauliflora.

Material and methods: The phytochemical analysis of P. cauliflora extracts was performed by the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin dosage method. Moreover, the compounds were identified by HPLC-MS-Q-TOF. Antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, MDA formation, and phosphomolybdenum assays. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of P. cauliflora were evaluated by the reduction of nitric oxide in the J774A.1 cell line and inhibition of ear edema in mice, respectively.

Results: The ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited greater flavonoid content whereas the ethanolic extract of the branches showed higher tannins content. Twenty-two and seventeen compounds were identified by HPLC-MS-Q-TOF in the leaves and branches, respectively, being tellimagrandin I, castalagin, and valoneic acid dilactone reported for the first time in P. cauliflora. The antioxidant potential of extracts was confirmed through different oxidation pathways from oxidizing radicals, which might be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. For the anti-inflammatory assay, the leaves and branches extracts showed promising results, with a reduction of nitric oxide ear edema inhibition around 95% and 80%, respectively.

Conclusions: Herein, the great biological potential of leaves and branches extracts from P. cauliflora was highlighted. These parts of the plant are underused and poorly reported in the literature, especially for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: Ear edema; Free radicals; Jaboticaba; Nitric oxide; Plinia cauliflora; Polyphenols.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Brazil
  • Cell Line
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Edema / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mice
  • Myrtaceae / chemistry*
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts
  • Nitric Oxide