The possible benefits of vitamin D in COVID-19

Nutrition. 2021 Nov-Dec;91-92:111356. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2021.111356. Epub 2021 May 26.


Molecular studies have demonstrated the importance of the exacerbated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, called the cytokine storm, in more severe COVID-19. The pathophysiology is complex and involves several homeostatic factors; among them, a deficit of vitamin D draws attention because of its high frequency in the population. Some evidence suggests that people with low serum vitamin D levels have worse outcomes, often requiring intensive care. This review analyzed the studies available in the global literature addressing the benefits of vitamin D in COVID-19, relating serum levels to the severity of the disease, and indicating vitamin D as a possible prophylactic and therapy in infection.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cytokine storm; Immunomodulation; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Cytokine Release Syndrome
  • Humans
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / drug therapy
  • Vitamins


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D