Molecular studies have demonstrated the importance of the exacerbated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, called the cytokine storm, in more severe COVID-19. The pathophysiology is complex and involves several homeostatic factors; among them, a deficit of vitamin D draws attention because of its high frequency in the population. Some evidence suggests that people with low serum vitamin D levels have worse outcomes, often requiring intensive care. This review analyzed the studies available in the global literature addressing the benefits of vitamin D in COVID-19, relating serum levels to the severity of the disease, and indicating vitamin D as a possible prophylactic and therapy in infection.
Keywords: COVID-19; Cytokine storm; Immunomodulation; Vitamin D.
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