Background and Objectives: Uterine fibroids develop in 25-40% of women of childbearing age; however, there are discrepancies resulting from population and socioeconomic differences. The pathogenesis of fibroids is not clear. The aim of the study was to assess the potential connection between the use of oral contraceptives and the occurrence of uterine fibroids in women of childbearing age. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, survey, case-control study, data were collected from Caucasian female patients (mean age = 30) using a questionnaire concerning the onset, duration and form of hormonal contraception, and medical and obstetrical history. The questionnaires were handed personally to hospitalized patients as well as distributed through Google forms on social media. Results: In a study group (n = 140) of patients using hormonal contraception, 37.8% of them were diagnosed with uterine fibroids, whereas among the patients not using hormonal contraception (n = 206), uterine fibroids were diagnosed in 59.6% of the patients. The most common hormonal contraception was two-component hormonal tablets used by 93.3% of the patients. Taking contraceptives was a uterine fibroids protective factor (OR = 0.4, p = 0.007). In the study group, 5.5% of the patients were pregnant and 60.42% were diagnosed with uterine fibroids (OR = 4.4, p < 0.000001). Conclusion: Contraception was found to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids among the women surveyed. The presented data confirm the theory about the hormonal dependence of uterine fibroids.
Keywords: contraception; oral contraceptive pills; uterine fibroids.