Pseudomembranous Cystitis: An Uncommon Ultrasound Appearance of Cystitis in Cats and Dogs

Vet Sci. 2021 Jul 2;8(7):125. doi: 10.3390/vetsci8070125.


In veterinary medicine, pseudomembranous cystitis (PC) is a rare condition described only in cats. The purposes of this retrospective study were to describe ultrasound features of PC in cats and dogs, predisposing factors, comorbidities and outcomes. Cats and dogs with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of PC were included in the study. The bladder ultrasound findings that were recorded were: pseudomembranes' characteristics, abnormalities of the bladder's wall and content and anomalies of the pericystic peritoneal space. Ten cats and four dogs met the inclusion criteria. Four pseudomembrane adhesion patterns were described. The presence of pseudomembrane acoustic shadowing was observed in the 60% of cats. A total of 80% of the cats included were presented for urethral obstruction (UO) and/or had at least one episode of UO in the previous 2 months. Thirteen patients out of fourteen received only medical therapy, and all of them survived. PC is a rare disorder in cats and dogs and there are some ultrasonographic differences between the two species, suggesting a greater severity of the pathology in cats. Chronic cystitis and UO may have a potential role in the development of feline PC. Finally, the medical approach can be a non-invasive and effective approach for PC.

Keywords: cat; dog; pseudomembranous cystitis.