Extracellular Proteome Analysis Shows the Abundance of Histidine Kinase Sensor Protein, DNA Helicase, Putative Lipoprotein Containing Peptidase M75 Domain and Peptidase C39 Domain Protein in Leptospira interrogans Grown in EMJH Medium

Pathogens. 2021 Jul 6;10(7):852. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10070852.


Leptospirosis is a re-emerging form of zoonosis that is caused by the spirochete pathogen Leptospira. Extracellular proteins play critical roles in the pathogenicity and survival of this pathogen in the host and environment. Extraction and analysis of extracellular proteins is a difficult task due to the abundance of enrichments like serum and bovine serum albumin in the culture medium, as is distinguishing them from the cellular proteins that may reach the analyte during extraction. In this study, extracellular proteins were separated as secretory proteins from the culture supernatant and surface proteins were separated during the washing of the cell pellet. The proteins identified were sorted based on the proportion of the cellular fractions and the extracellular fractions. The results showed the identification of 56 extracellular proteins, out of which 19 were exclusively extracellular. For those proteins, the difference in quantity with respect to their presence within the cell was found to be up to 1770-fold. Further, bioinformatics analysis elucidated characteristics and functions of the identified proteins. Orthologs of extracellular proteins in various Leptospira species were found to be closely related among different pathogenic forms. In addition to the identification of extracellular proteins, this study put forward a method for the extraction and identification of extracellular proteins.

Keywords: Leptospira; extracellular; pathogenic; protein; proteomics; secretory; surface.