Effects of Vaccination Day Routine Activities on Influenza Vaccine Efficacy and Vaccination-Induced Adverse Reaction Incidence: A Cohort Study

Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Jul 6;9(7):753. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9070753.


We aimed to investigate the effect of vaccination day routine activities on the influenza vaccine efficacy and vaccination-induced adverse reaction incidence. Study participants were workers at three hospitals in the Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, who received the influenza vaccine between October and November, 2018 and 2019. Their data were collected using a questionnaire. The main factors, which were examined for vaccination day routine activities, were personal hygiene (bathing), smoking, alcohol consumption, caffeine intake, and exercise. The main outcome markers included influenza incidence during the winter season and vaccination-induced local or systemic adverse reaction incidence. The risk ratio for the main factors of vaccination day routine activities was calculated against the main outcome markers using the modified Poisson regression. Overall, 3780 people received the influenza vaccination, and 2731 submitted the questionnaire. We found that vaccination day routine activities did not affect the influenza vaccine efficacy, and engaging in strenuous exercise on the vaccination day tended to cause systemic adverse reactions. Moreover, lifestyle-related activities had no impact on the incidence of systemic or local adverse reactions. Therefore, it is advisable to only avoid strenuous physical exercise, and no other lifestyle-related restrictions are necessary on the day of influenza vaccination.

Keywords: alcohol consumption; bath; caffeine intake; exercise; influenza; routine activity; smoking; vaccination.