Anterior segment ischemia developed in a 62-year-old dysthyroid patient after two-muscle adjustable suture repair of vertical strabismus. Because of a quiescent pulmonary tuberculous focus he was not treated with systemic steroid therapy but rather with hyperbaric oxygen in the controlled environment of our hospital hyperbaric chamber. He tolerated this treatment well, and his acute symptoms almost completely resolved in 3 days. We believe this to be the first reported case of the use of hyperbaric oxygen in the management of anterior segment ischemia. We also believe it is the first reported case of anterior segment ischemia following surgery to two opposing, not contiguous, rectus muscles in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy.