The prognostic value of cardiac troponin for 60 day mortality and major adverse events in COVID-19 patients

Cardiovasc Pathol. 2021 Nov-Dec;55:107374. doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2021.107374. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Abstract

Background: The variability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness severity has puzzled clinicians and has sparked efforts to better predict who would benefit from rapid intervention. One promising biomarker for in-hospital morbidity and mortality is cardiac troponin (cTn).

Methods: A retrospective study of 1331 adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Rush University System in Illinois, USA was performed. Patients without cTn measurement during their admission or a history of end stage renal disease or stage 5 chronic kidney disease were excluded. Using logistic regression adjusted for baseline characteristics, pre-existing comorbidities, and other laboratory markers of inflammation, cTn was assessed as a predictor of 60-day mortality and severe COVID-19 infection, consisting of a composite of 60-day mortality, need for intensive care unit, or requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation or intubation.

Results: A total of 772 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 69 (8.9%) had mild cTn elevation (> 1 to < 2x upper limit of normal (ULN)) and 46 (6.0%) had severe cTn elevation (≥ 2x ULN). Regardless of baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and initial c-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin, when compared to the normal cTn group, mild cTn elevation and severe cTn elevation were predictors of severe COVID-19 infection (adjusted OR [aOR] aOR 3.00 [CI: 1.51 - 6.29], P < 0.01; aOR 9.96 [CI: 2.75 - 64.23], P < 0.01, respectively); severe cTn elevation was a predictor of in-hospital mortality (aOR 2.42 [CI: 1.10 - 5.21], P < 0.05) and 60-day mortality (aOR 2.45 [CI: 1.13 - 5.25], P < 0.05).

Conclusion: In our cohort, both mild and severe initial cTn elevation were predictors of severe COVID-19 infection, while only severe cTn elevation was predictive of 60-day mortality. First cTn value on hospitalization is a valuable longitudinal prognosticator for COVID-19 disease severity and mortality.

Keywords: Biomarker; COVID-19; Mortality; SARS-CoV-2; Troponin.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • COVID-19 / blood
  • COVID-19 / diagnosis*
  • COVID-19 / mortality
  • COVID-19 / therapy
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Illinois
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Time Factors
  • Troponin / blood*
  • Up-Regulation

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Troponin