Therapeutic Management of Rare Primary Ovarian Neoplasms: Carcinosarcoma, Leiomyosarcoma, Melanoma and Carcinoid

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jul 23;18(15):7819. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18157819.


Carcinosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, melanoma and carcinoid as primary tumors in the ovary are extremely rare. In this paper, the authors reviewed the literature from 2010 to 2021, based on specific criteria, to analyze the treatment of these rare ovarian neoplasms. We also aimed to verify whether modern therapies have been found in recent years. For this article, 80 papers were finally selected. The vast majority of the articles were clinical case reports. Despite single mentions of new potential pharmacological treatments, surgery (radical or fertility-sparing) is definitely the mainstay of treatment. There are currently no treatment guidelines for these tumors. A review of the literature has revealed the use of various adjuvant treatments. We, therefore, believe that a more detailed understanding of the biology of these tumors is necessary in order to find new target points for treatment. We would like to emphasize the importance of creating an international database of rare ovarian tumors which would make it possible to gather data from various oncological centers and enable further research into these neoplasms.

Keywords: adjuvant treatment; cancer care; carcinoid of the ovary; carcinosarcoma of the ovary; leiomyosarcoma of the ovary; ovarian malignant melanoma; surgery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoid Tumor*
  • Carcinosarcoma* / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / therapy
  • Melanoma* / drug therapy
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / drug therapy