Tri-Response Police, Ambulance, Mental Health Crisis Models in Reducing Involuntary Detentions of Mentally Ill People: Protocol for a Systematic Review

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Aug 3;18(15):8230. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18158230.


Police, ambulance and mental health tri-response services are a relatively new model of responding to people experiencing mental health crisis in the community, but limited evidence exists examining their efficacy. To date there have been no systematic reviews that have examined the association between the tri-response model and rates of involuntary detentions. A systematic review examining co-response models demonstrated possible reduction in involuntary detention, however, recommended further research. The aim of this protocol is to describe how we will systematically review the evidence base around the relationship of the police, ambulance mental health tri-response models in reducing involuntary detentions. We will search health, policing and grey literature databases and include clinical evaluations of any design. Risk of bias will be determined using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool and a narrative synthesis will be undertaken to synthesis key themes. Risk of bias and extracted data will be summarized in tables and results synthesis tabulated to identify patterns within the included studies. The findings will inform future research into the effectiveness of tri-response police, ambulance, and mental health models in reducing involuntary detentions.

Keywords: ambulance; assessment; involuntary detention; mental health; mental illness; pacer; police; protocol; psychosis; section; self-harm; systematic review.

MeSH terms

  • Ambulances
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders* / epidemiology
  • Mental Health
  • Mental Health Services*
  • Mentally Ill Persons*
  • Police
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic