Nanovesicles from Organic Agriculture-Derived Fruits and Vegetables: Characterization and Functional Antioxidant Content

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 29;22(15):8170. doi: 10.3390/ijms22158170.


Dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is related to a risk reduction in a series of leading human diseases, probably due to the plants' antioxidant content. Plant-derived nanovesicles (PDNVs) have been recently receiving great attention regarding their natural ability to deliver several active biomolecules and antioxidants. To investigate the presence of active antioxidants in fruits, we preliminarily analyzed the differences between nanovesicles from either organic or conventional agriculture-derived fruits, at equal volumes, showing a higher yield of nanovesicles with a smaller size from organic agriculture-derived fruits as compared to conventional ones. PDNVs from organic agriculture also showed a higher antioxidant level compared to nanovesicles from conventional agriculture. Using the PDNVs from fruit mixes, we found comparable levels of Total Antioxidant Capacity, Ascorbic Acid, Catalase, Glutathione and Superoxide Dismutase 1. Finally, we exposed the nanovesicle mixes to either chemical or physical lytic treatments, with no evidence of effects on the number, size and antioxidant capacity of the treated nanovesicles, thus showing a marked resistance of PDNVs to external stimuli and a high capability to preserve their content. Our study provides for the first time a series of data supporting the use of plant-derived nanovesicles in human beings' daily supplementation, for both prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Keywords: antioxidants; natural bioactives; organic agriculture; plant-derived nanovesicles.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Diet
  • Extracellular Vesicles
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Organic Agriculture*
  • Vegetables / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants