Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces lung injury of varying severity, potentially causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary injury patterns in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients with other causes of ARDS. We aimed to explore the frequency and pathogenesis of cavitary lung lesions in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Retrospective study in 39 critically ill adult patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 including lung injury of varying severity in a tertiary care referral center during March and May 2020, Berlin/Germany. We observed lung cavitations in an unusually large proportion of 22/39 (56%) COVID-19 patients treated on intensive care units (ICU), including 3/5 patients without mechanical ventilation. Median interquartile range (IQR) time between onset of symptoms and ICU admission was 11.5 (6.25-17.75) days. In 15 patients, lung cavitations were already present on the first CT scan, performed after ICU admission; in seven patients they developed during a subsequent median (IQR) observation period of 48 (35-58) days. In seven patients we found at least one cavitation with a diameter > 2 cm (maximum 10 cm). Patients who developed cavitations were older and had a higher body mass index. Autopsy findings in three patients revealed that the cavitations reflected lung infarcts undergoing liquefaction, secondary to thrombotic pulmonary artery branch occlusions. Lung cavitations appear to be a frequent complication of severely ill COVID-19 patients, probably related to the prothrombotic state associated with COVID-19.
© 2021. The Author(s).