Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an acute phase protein that has been reported as a potential marker for pre-dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal studies for its association with the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to AD is still lacking. This study included n = 268 study participants with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) (n=82), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=98) and AD dementia (n=88) at baseline and two-year follow-up clinical assessments. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)NGAL, CSF amyloid beta1-42, total-Tau, and phospho-Tau levels were measured with ELISA analysis. CSF NGAL levels were significantly lower in MCI participants compared to people with SCD at baseline. Lower baseline CSF NGAL levels predicted MCI converters to AD dementia vs. non-converters after 2-years follow-up. A positive correlation between CSF NGAL and amyloid beta1-42 was found particularly in MCI participants at baseline. NGAL in CSF holds potential to be used as a predictive marker for the conversion of MCI to AD dementia and may reflect pathophysiological processes of prodromal AD neuropathology.
Keywords: Amyloid beta; Converters; Follow-up; Lipocalin 2; Neuroinflammation; Prodromal, Biomarker.
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