Diagnostic comparison of biochemical profile in patients with Covid-19, dengue and Acute Febrile illness: Implications for patient management

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health. 2021 Oct-Dec:12:100844. doi: 10.1016/j.cegh.2021.100844. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Abstract

Purpose: Although there are specific laboratory tests available for the diagnosis of Covid-19 and dengue, during the present pandemic era of prioritized focus on Covid-19 assessment, there are possibilities that persons with dengue may remain undiagnosed. The present study explores the role of biochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of Covid-19 and dengue.

Methods: A total of 212 participants with Acute Febrile Illness were tested for Covid-19 and dengue at the secondary care hospital, Civil Hospital Narwana, Haryana, India. The Covid-19 and dengue diagnosis were performed using standard tests followed by hematological profiling which included neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet count, Vitamin D3 assessment, SGOT, SGPT, and SPO2 concentration levels.

Results: Out of 212 participants, 118 were diagnosed with Covid-19 positive only, 18 dengue positive only, 5 co-infected with Covid-19 and dengue, and 71 persons with Acute Febrile Illness (control group). ANOVA revealed that mean SPO2 was significantly lower in Covid-19 and dengue than control, while SGPT and SGOT levels of Covid-19 and dengue patients were significantly higher than the control group. The mean NLR was significantly higher in Covid-19 and dengue than control and Vitamin D3 levels were significantly reduced for Covid-19 patients. Besides, thrombocytopenia was observed only in dengue patients.

Conclusion: The results advocate the potential use of combinations of these makers in differential diagnosis of these two fatal viral conditions and can help by enabling the adaptation of the therapeutic conduct to the needs of individual patients.

Keywords: Comorbid condition; Covid-19; Dengue.