Obesity is a major health issue throughout the world and bariatric surgery plays a key role in its management and treatment. The role of microbiota in determining the pathogenesis of obesity has been widely studied, while its role in determining the outcome of bariatric surgery is an emerging issue that will be an outcome in near future studies. Studies on mice first showed the key role of microbiota in determining obesity, highlighting the fat mass increase in mice transplanted with microbiota from fat individuals, as well as the different microbiota composition between mice undergone to low-fat or high-fat diets. This led to characterize the asset of microbiota composition in obesity: increased abundance of Firmicutes, reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes and other taxonomical features. Variations on the composition of gut microbiome have been detected in patients undergone to diet and/or bariatric surgery procedures. Patients undergone to restricting diets showed lower level of trimethylamine N-oxide and other metabolites strictly associated to microbiome, as well as patients treated with bariatric surgery showed, after the procedure, changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and other phyla with a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Eventually, studies have been led about the effects that the modification of microbiota could have on obesity itself, mainly focusing on elements like fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics such as inulin. This series of studies and considerations represent the first step in order to select patients eligible to bariatric surgery and to predict their outcome.
Keywords: bariatric endoscopy; bariatric surgery; gut microbiota; obesity.
© The Author(s), 2021.