Objectives: Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) is a rare, polymorphous neoplasm with a highly variable presentation and natural history and unpredictable clinical course. The primary objective was to describe our clinical experience with and management of 4 markedly different cases of sinonasal and skull base PMT.
Methods: A retrospective case series with chart review, and relevant literature review, was performed at a tertiary academic medical center between 1998 and 2020. Adult patients treated for PMTs of the sinonasal area and skull base were included. Our main outcome measures included postoperative laboratory findings and radiological evidence of disease remission.
Results: Four patients (2 Males, 2 Females; Mean Age: 63.5 years) with PMTs of the skull base have been managed at our institution since 1998. Patient presentations varied, ranging from severe phosphorus wasting and osteoporosis to symptoms secondary to mass effect, including nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. All 4 patients were eventually found to have elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. Tumors were located in the sinonasal area (right frontal sinus, right ethmoid sinus, and right nasal cavity, respectively) in 3 patients and in the lateral skull base (right jugular foramen) in 1 patient. All 4 patients underwent complete surgical resection of their tumors. PMT tissue pathology was confirmed in all cases. Gross total resection was achieved in all patients. There was no chemical or radiological evidence of disease recurrence in any patients at follow-up.
Conclusions: The presentation of skull base PMT is variable, and it may mimic other mass pathologies of the head and neck. Complete surgical resection with negative margins is potentially curative.
Keywords: FGF-23; hypophosphatemia; osteomalacia; phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor; sinonasal; skull base.