Gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor that occur in adults and children. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, aggressive form of brain cancer in adults and is universally fatal. The current standard-of-care options for GBM include surgical resection, radiotherapy, and concomitant and/or adjuvant chemotherapy. One of the major challenges that impedes success of chemotherapy is the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Because of the tightly regulated BBB, immune surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS) is poor, contributing to unregulated glioma cell growth. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in treatment of GBM with emphasis on the significant advances in immunotherapy and novel therapeutic delivery strategies to enhance treatment for GBM.
Keywords: blood–brain barrier (BBB); blood–brain tumor barrier (BBTB); chemotherapy; focused ultrasound (FUS); glioblastoma; hydrogels; immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); radiation; smart hydrogels; stem cell engineering; stem cell-based therapy; surgery.