Audio-Based Drone Detection and Identification Using Deep Learning Techniques with Dataset Enhancement through Generative Adversarial Networks

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Jul 21;21(15):4953. doi: 10.3390/s21154953.


Drones are becoming increasingly popular not only for recreational purposes but in day-to-day applications in engineering, medicine, logistics, security and others. In addition to their useful applications, an alarming concern in regard to the physical infrastructure security, safety and privacy has arisen due to the potential of their use in malicious activities. To address this problem, we propose a novel solution that automates the drone detection and identification processes using a drone's acoustic features with different deep learning algorithms. However, the lack of acoustic drone datasets hinders the ability to implement an effective solution. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by introducing a hybrid drone acoustic dataset composed of recorded drone audio clips and artificially generated drone audio samples using a state-of-the-art deep learning technique known as the Generative Adversarial Network. Furthermore, we examine the effectiveness of using drone audio with different deep learning algorithms, namely, the Convolutional Neural Network, the Recurrent Neural Network and the Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network in drone detection and identification. Moreover, we investigate the impact of our proposed hybrid dataset in drone detection. Our findings prove the advantage of using deep learning techniques for drone detection and identification while confirming our hypothesis on the benefits of using the Generative Adversarial Networks to generate real-like drone audio clips with an aim of enhancing the detection of new and unfamiliar drones.

Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network CNN; Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network CRNN; Generative Adversarial Networks GAN; Recurrent Neural Network RNN; UAV; acoustic fingerprinting; artificial intelligence; deep learning; drone; drone audio dataset; drone detection; drone identification; machine learning.

MeSH terms

  • Acoustics
  • Algorithms
  • Deep Learning*
  • Humans
  • Neural Networks, Computer