Gliomas are the most common adult and pediatric primary brain tumors. Molecular studies have identified features that can enhance diagnosis and provide biomarkers. IDH1/2 mutation with ATRX and TP53 mutations defines diffuse astrocytomas, whereas IDH1/2 mutations with 1p19q loss defines oligodendroglioma. Focal amplifications of receptor tyrosine kinase genes, TERT promoter mutation, and loss of chromosomes 10 and 13 with trisomy of chromosome 7 are characteristic features of glioblastoma and can be used for diagnosis. BRAF gene fusions and mutations in low-grade gliomas and histone H3 mutations in high-grade gliomas also can be used for diagnostics.
Keywords: 1p19q loss; ATRX mutation; BRAF V600E mutation; BRAF fusion; Histone H3 K27M mutation; IDH1/2 mutation.
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