Capsular contracture is fundamentally an immunological/inflammatory response to the implant, treating it as a foreign body in need of exclusion from the immune system. The capsule surrounding the implant is populated by a rich variety of immunologically active cells such as macrophages, T lymphocytes, and myofibroblasts. Vaccination in general and the COVID-19 vaccine in particular result in specific and nonspecific activation of the immune system, including those immune cells in proximity to the implant. This phenomenon has been previously demonstrated in delayed inflammatory reactions to previously implanted hyaluronic acid fillers following COVID-19 vaccination. This report is what is believed to be the first case of the rapid development of severe ipsilateral capsular contracture in the immediate aftermath of the second dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine.
© 2021 The Aesthetic Society.