Analysis of fecal nutrients and particle size in captive proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) fed seasonal dietary foliage at a Japanese zoo

Anim Sci J. 2021 Jan-Dec;92(1):e13612. doi: 10.1111/asj.13612.


One male and three female captive proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were used as test animals to compare fecal nutrients after being fed seasonal foliage. Foliage and fecal samples were collected during three seasons (spring, summer, and winter). We analyzed crude ash (CA), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL). In addition to the above components, for the fecal samples, we examined total fecal nitrogen (TFN), nitrogen in fecal NDF (NDF-N), metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN), and particle size distribution (MPS). Seasonal differences in foliage components were observed, with NDF and ADF being lowest in spring (p < 0.05). Fecal NDF and ADF also tended to be lowest in spring. Further, the distribution of fecal particle size indicated that MPS tended to increase in winter. The mean fecal NDF content (47.4%) for all three seasons measured in this study was as much as 1.3 times lower than previously reported values in free-ranging specimens. These data provide useful information that can be used to find some suitable food items for the endangered highly folivorous monkeys in captivity.

Keywords: better husbandry; colobine monkey; fiber consumption; leaf chemistry; substitutive feed.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis
  • Animals
  • Detergents
  • Diet / veterinary
  • Dietary Fiber / analysis
  • Digestion
  • Female
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Nitrogen
  • Nutrients
  • Particle Size
  • Presbytini*
  • Seasons


  • Detergents
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Nitrogen