Background: Observed associations of high-protein diets with changes in insulin resistance are inconclusive.
Objectives: We aimed to assess associations of changes in both reported and estimated protein (PRep; PEst) and energy intake (EIRep; EIEst) with changes in HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and BMI (in kg/m2), in 1822 decreasing to 833 adults (week 156) with overweight and prediabetes, during the 3-y PREVIEW (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle intervention and population studies In Europe and around the World) study on weight-loss maintenance. Eating behavior and measurement errors (MEs) of dietary intake were assessed. Thus, observational post hoc analyses were applied.
Methods: Associations of changes in EIEst, EIRep, PEst, and PRep with changes in HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and BMI were determined by linear mixed-model analysis in 2 arms [high-protein-low-glycemic-index (GI) diet and moderate-protein-moderate-GI diet] of the PREVIEW study. EIEst was derived from energy requirement: total energy expenditure = basal metabolic rate × physical activity level; PEst from urinary nitrogen, and urea. MEs were calculated as [(EIEst - EIRep)/EIEst] × 100% and [(PRep - PEst)/PEst] × 100%. Eating behavior was determined using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, examining cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger.
Results: Increases in PEst and PRep and decreases in EIEst and EIRep were associated with decreases in BMI, but not independently with decreases in HOMA-IR. Increases in PEst and PRep were associated with decreases in HbA1c. PRep and EIRep showed larger changes and stronger associations than PEst and EIEst. Mean ± SD MEs of EIRep and PRep were 38% ± 9% and 14% ± 4%, respectively; ME changes in EIRep and En% PRep were positively associated with changes in BMI and cognitive dietary restraint and inversely with disinhibition and hunger.
Conclusions: During weight-loss maintenance in adults with prediabetes, increase in protein intake and decrease in energy intake were not associated with decrease in HOMA-IR beyond associations with decrease in BMI. Increases in PEst and PRep were associated with decrease in HbA1c.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01777893.
Keywords: basal metabolic rate; measurement error of dietary intake reporting; obesity; physical activity level; prediabetes; urinary nitrogen as biomarker.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.