The current recommendation for the management of isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

BJU Int. 2022 May;129(5):627-633. doi: 10.1111/bju.15568. Epub 2021 Aug 25.


Objective: To analyse the current predictive value of isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) for clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) detection in repeat biopsies.

Patients and methods: A cohort of 293 men with isolated HGPIN detected in previous biopsies performed without multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and who underwent repeat biopsy within 1 to 3 years, was analysed. Pre-repeat biopsy mpMRI and guided biopsies to suspicious lesions (Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] ≥3) and/or and systematic biopsies were performed. Persistent prostate cancer (PCa) suspicion, defined as sustained serum prostate-specific antigen level >4 ng/mL and/or abnormal digital rectal examination, was present in 248 men (84.6%), and was absent in 45 men (15.4%). A control group of 190 men who had no previous HGPIN, atypical small acinar proliferation or HGPIN with atypia who were scheduled to undergo repeat biopsy due to persistent PCa suspicion were also analysed. csPCa was defined as tumours of Grade Group ≥2.

Results: In the subset of 45 men with isolated HGPIN, in whom PCa suspicion disappeared, only one csPCa (2.2%) and one insignificant PCa (iPCa) were detected. csPCa was detected in 34.7% of men with persistent PCa suspicion and previous HGPIN, and in 28.4% of those without previous HGPIN (P =0.180). iPCa was detected in 12.1% and 6.3%, respectively (P =0.039). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of csPCa detection was not predicted by previous HGPIN: odds ratio (OR) 1.369 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.894-2.095; P =0.149); however, previous HGPIN increased the risk of iPCa detection: OR 2.043 (95% CI 1.016-4.109; P =0.006).

Conclusion: The risk of csPCa in men with isolated HGPIN, in whom PCa suspicion disappears, is extremely low. Moreover, in those men in whom PCa suspicion persists, the risk of csPCa is not influenced by the previous finding of HGPIN. However, previous HGPIN increases the risk of iPCa detection. Therefore, repeat prostate biopsy should not be recommended solely because of a previous HGPIN.

Keywords: clinically significant prostate cancer; high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia; insignificant prostate cancer; multiparametric MRI; repeat prostate biopsy.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Male
  • Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Prostate / pathology
  • Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia* / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Urologic Neoplasms* / pathology