Host-informed therapies for the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia

Trends Mol Med. 2021 Oct;27(10):971-989. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2021.07.008. Epub 2021 Aug 8.


Over the past two decades, traditional antimicrobial strategies have lost efficacy due to a rapid rise in antibiotic resistance and limited success in developing new antibiotics. Rather than relying on therapeutics solely targeting the bacterial pathogen, therapies are emerging that simultaneously focus on host responses. Here, we describe the most promising 'host-informed therapies' (HITs) in two categories: those that aid patients with fully functional immune systems, and those that aid patients with perturbed immune processes. Using Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, as a case study, we show HITs as an attractive option for supplementing infection management. However, to broaden their applicability and design new strategies, targeted research and clinical trials will be essential.

Keywords: host-directed therapies; host-informed; immunity; infectious disease; pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal* / drug therapy
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents