Effects of Rosmarinic Acid on Methotrexate-induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

Indian J Nephrol. 2021 May-Jun;31(3):218-224. doi: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_14_20. Epub 2021 Jan 27.


Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX), used in the treatment of cancerous patients, causes toxicity in the different organs of the body. This study of rosmarinic acid (RA) is as an antioxidant on nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by MTX.

Methods: Rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups: sham; MTX; 100 mg\kg RA + MTX; 200 mg/kg RA + MTX. The amount of MTX was 20 mg/kg. 24 hours after injection of the last dose of MTX, the blood samples and kidneys and liver of rats were studied. The aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, serum creatinine were assessed. Tissue antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. The liver and kidney tissues were histopathologically examined.

Results: MTX significantly increased the urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP levels, and renal MDA and significantly decreased renal catalase (CAT), hepatic glutathione (GSH), and hepatic CAT activity. MTX induced necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, eosinophilic casts, glomerular damage in kidney tissue and necrosis, degeneration and cellular vacuolization in liver tissues. RA at 100 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in ALT and AST and at two doses significantly decreased urea, renal MDA, and liver MDA. RA at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the renal CAT and liver GSH. RA in two doses significantly decreased necrosis and Leukocyte infiltration. RA caused a significant decrease in degeneration and cellular vacuolization in liver tissues.

Conclusions: RA with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics decreased the MTX induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Hepatotoxicity; methotrexate; nephrotoxicity; rat; rosmarinic acid.