Evaluation of D-loop hypervariable region I variations, haplogroups and copy number of mitochondrial DNA in Bangladeshi population with type 2 diabetes

Heliyon. 2021 Jul 15;7(7):e07573. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07573. eCollection 2021 Jul.


The profound impact of mitochondrion in cellular metabolism has been well documented. Since type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder, mitochondrial dysfunction is intricately linked with the disease pathogenesis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants are involved with functional dysfunction of mitochondrion and play a pivotal role in the susceptibility to T2D. In this study, we opted to find the association of mtDNA variants within the D-loop hypervariable region I (HVI), haplogroups and mtDNA copy number with T2D in Bangladeshi population. A total of 300 unrelated Bangladeshi individuals (150 healthy and 150 patients with T2D) were recruited in the present study, their HVI regions were amplified and sequenced using Sanger chemistry. Haplogrep2 and Phylotree17 tools were employed to determine the haplogroups. MtDNA copy number was measured using primers of mitochondrial tRNALeu (UUR) gene and nuclear β2-microglobulin gene. Variants G16048A (OR:0.12, p = 0.04) and G16129A (OR: 0.42, p = 0.007) were found to confer protective role against T2D according to logistic regression analysis. However along with G16129A, two new variants C16294T and T16325C demonstrated protective role against T2D when age and gender were adjusted. Haplogroups A and H showed significant association with the risk of T2D after adjustments out of total 19 major haplogroups identified. The mtDNA copy numbers were stratified into 4 groups according to the quartiles (groups with lower, medium, upper and higher mtDNA copy numbers were respectively designated as LCN, MCN, UCN and HCN). Patients with T2D had significantly lower mtDNA copy number compared to their healthy counterparts in HCN group. Moreover, six mtDNA variants were significantly associated with mtDNA copy number in the participants. Thus, our study confers that certain haplogroups and novel variants of mtDNA are significantly associated with T2D while decreased mtDNA copy number (though not significant) has been observed in patients with T2D. However, largescale studies are warranted to establish association of novel variants and haplogroup with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Bangladesh; D-loop; Haplogroup; Hypervariable region; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial DNA; Type 2 diabetes.