Background: Alemtuzumab efficacy and safety was demonstrated in CARE-MS I and extension studies (CAMMS03409; TOPAZ).
Objective: Evaluate serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) in CARE-MS I patients and highly active disease (HAD) subgroup, over 7 and 2 years for alemtuzumab and subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNB-1a), respectively.
Methods: Patients received SC IFNB-1a 44 µg 3×/week or alemtuzumab 12 mg/day at baseline and month 12, with further as-needed 3-day courses. sNfL was measured using single-molecule array (Simoa™). HAD definition was ⩾2 relapses in year before randomization and ⩾1 baseline gadolinium-enhancing lesion.
Results: Baseline median sNfL levels were similar in alemtuzumab (n = 354) and SC IFNB-1a-treated (n = 159) patients (31.7 vs 31.4 pg/mL), but decreased with alemtuzumab versus SC IFNB-1a until year 2 (Y2; 13.2 vs 18.7 pg/mL; p < 0.0001); 12.7 pg/mL for alemtuzumab at Y7. Alemtuzumab-treated patients had sNfL at/below healthy control median at Y2 (72% vs 47%; p < 0.0001); 73% for alemtuzumab at Y7. HAD patients (n = 102) had higher baseline sNfL (49.4 pg/mL) versus overall population; alemtuzumab HAD patients attained similar levels (Y2, 12.8 pg/mL; Y7, 12.7 pg/mL; 75% were at/below control median at Y7).
Conclusion: Alemtuzumab was superior to SC IFNB-1a in reducing sNfL, with levels in alemtuzumab patients remaining stable through Y7.
Keywords: Alemtuzumab; NfL/neurofilament light chain; biomarkers; clinical trials randomized controlled; highly active disease; multiple sclerosis.