Role of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization as a prognostic marker: Pathogenesis & clinical course in patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Indian J Med Res. 2021 Apr;153(4):475-483. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2257_18.

Abstract

Background & objectives: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is one of the most common forms of adult leukaemia, with a highly variable clinical course. Specific chromosomal and genetic aberrations are used clinically to predict prognosis, independent from conventional clinical markers. Molecular cytogenetic methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detect aberrations in up to 80 per cent B-CLL patients. This study was conducted to score the frequencies of recurrent aberrations, i.e., del(13q14), trisomy 12, del(11q22), del(17p13), del(6q21) and IgH (immunoglobulin heavy chain) translocations and to understand their role in prognostication and risk stratification.

Methods: FISH studies were performed on bone marrow aspirate or peripheral blood of 280 patients using commercially available disease-specific probe set. The data were correlated with clinical and haematological parameters such as low haemoglobin, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy.

Results: Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 79 per cent of patients, with del(13q14) (57%) as the most common cytogenetic aberration, followed by trisomy 12 (27%), del(11q22) (22%), t(14q32) (19%), del(17p13) (18%) and del(6q21) (9%). Single or in coexistence with other aberration del(13q14) had a favourable outcome in comparison to del(11q22), t(14q32), del(17p13) and del(6q21) which were associated with advanced stages of the disease. Trisomy 12 had a variable clinical course.

Interpretation & conclusions: FISH was found to be a sensitive and efficient technique in detecting the prevalence of recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities. Each of these aberrations is an important independent predictor of disease progression and survival which aids in designing risk-adapted treatment strategies for better disease management.

Keywords: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; chromosomal aberration; fluorescence in situ; hybridization; lactate dehydrogenase; prognosis; time-to-first treatment; treatment-free survival.

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell* / diagnosis
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell* / genetics
  • Prognosis