Medulloblastoma outcomes in tertiary care set-up in India using contemporary treatment protocols - A retrospective study

Indian J Cancer. 2021 May 11. doi: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_1025_19. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Medulloblastoma is the commonest embryonal brain tumor in children. It has shown improved outcomes with combined modality treatment. We aimed to study patient characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with this disease across two tertiary care centers in India.

Methods: We analyzed data of patients with histological diagnosis of medulloblastoma treated from January 2010 to January 2016. Patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrieved from hospital records. Descriptive statistics were used to describe clinical and pathological characteristics. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from date of diagnosis to death due to any cause. Relapse-free survival (RFS) was calculated from date of diagnosis to occurrence of relapse or death.

Result: Out of 26 patients treated, 24 were children and 2 were adults. Median age was 10 years (range = 0.8-22 years). Twenty (76.9%) patients were male. Fifteen (57.7%) patients were stratified as high-risk (HR), rest 11 (42.3%) were categorized as average risk (AR). Histopathology showed classical variety in majority of patients except for 4 (15%) cases, 3 with desmoplastic and 1 with anaplastic subtype. Median follow-up was 49.7 months (range= 4.2-102.5 months). Overall, eight (30.8%) patients relapsed and six (23%) deaths occurred. Five (33.3%) patients in HR category and 3 (27.3%) patients in AR group showed relapse. Median RFS and OS were not yet reached. Five-year RFS was 69.2% whereas five-year OS was 76.9%.

Conclusion: : This study highlighted patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in Indian patients. With adherence to standard treatment, high remission rates and improvement in mortality rates were achieved.

Keywords: Brain tumor; Indian tertiary care set-up; medulloblastoma; retrospective analysisy.